CHRONIC DISEASES


INTRODUCTION
A chronic disease may be a human health condition or illness that's persistent or otherwise long in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is commonly applied once the course of the disease lasts for quite 3 months. Common chronic diseases embrace arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic hindering pneumonic disease, diabetes, Lyme disease, reaction diseases, genetic disorders, and a few infectious agent diseases adore hepatitis C and purchased immunological disorder syndrome. associate illness that is womb-to-tomb as a result of it ends in death is a terminal illness. it's potential and not surprising for an illness to alter in definition from terminal to chronic. polygenic disorder and HIV to Illustrate were once terminals, however, are currently thought-about chronic because of the provision of hypoglycemic agents for diabetics and daily drug treatment for people with HIV which permit these individuals to measure whereas managing symptoms. In medicine, a chronic condition is distinguished from one that's acute. the associate acute condition usually affects one portion of the body and responds to treatment. A chronic condition on the opposite hand typically affects multiple areas of the body, isn't absolutely tuned in to treatment, and persists for an extended amount of time. Chronic conditions might have periods of remission or relapse wherever the illness quickly goes away or later reappears. Periods of remission and relapse are usually mentioned once concerning habit disorders that some deliberate to represent the class of chronic condition. Chronic conditions are usually related to non-communicable diseases which are distinguished by their non-infectious causes. Some chronic conditions though are caused by transmissible infections adore HIV/AIDS.63% of all deaths worldwide are from chronic conditions. Chronic diseases constitute a significant reason for mortality, and the World Health Organization (WHO) attributes thirty-eight million deaths a year to non-communicable diseases. within us more or less 40% of adults have a minimum of 2 chronic conditions.


DEFINITION
Chronic diseases are defined broadly as conditions that last 1 year or more and require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living or both. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States.


TYPES
Chronic diseases have frequently been used to explain the numerous fitness-associated states of the human frame which include syndromes, bodily impairments, disabilities in addition to sicknesses. Epidemiologists have located hobbies in persistent situations because of the truth they make contributions to disease, incapacity, and dwindled bodily and/or intellectual capacity. For example, hypertension or high blood pressure is taken into consideration to be now no longer most effective a persistent circumstance itself however additionally correlated to sicknesses which include coronary heart assault or stroke. Additionally, a few
socioeconomic elements can be taken into consideration as persistent circumstances as they result in incapacity in everyday life. A crucial one that public fitness officers withinside the social technological know-how putting have started highlighting is persistent poverty.
The listing underneath consists of those persistent situations and sicknesses:
Cancers
Cardiovascular diseases, including cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and ischemic cardiopathy
Chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2, pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes)
Other examples of chronic diseases and health conditions include:
Alzheimer's disease
Atrial fibrillation
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autoimmune diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and relapsing polychondritis
Autism or Asperger's Syndrome
Blindness
Cerebral palsy (all types)
Chronic graft-versus-host disease
Chronic hepatitis
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic osteoarticular diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic pain syndromes, such as post-vasectomy pain syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome
Dermatological conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis
Deafness and hearing impairment
Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (various types)
Endometriosis
Epilepsy
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Fibromyalgia
HIV/AIDS
Hereditary spherocytosis
Huntington's disease
Hypertension
Mental illness
Migraines
Multiple sclerosis
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (a.k.a. chronic fatigue syndrome)
Narcolepsy
Obesity
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Periodontal disease
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobin disorders
Substance Abuse Disorders
Sleep apnea
Tick-borne illness
Thyroid disease
Tuberculosis
RISK FACTORS
According to the World Health Report 2010, the major risk factors include:
Tobacco use
The harmful use of alcohol
Raised blood pressure (or hypertension)
Physical inactivity
Raised cholesterol
Overweight/obesity
Unhealthy diet
Raised blood glucose
• In individuals, we can classify the risks factors as follows:
Background risk factors, such as age, sex, level of education, and genetic composition;
Behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity;
Intermediate risk factors, such as elevated blood lipids, diabetes, high blood pressure, and overweight/obesity.
• In communities, the main factors that can impact health include:
Social and economic conditions, such as poverty, employment, and family composition;
Environment, such as climate or air pollution;
Cultures, such as practices, norms, and values; and
Urbanization, which influences housing, access to products and services
Chronic diseases share common risk factors and conditions. While some risk factors, such as our age, sex, and our genetic make-up, cannot be changed, many behavioral risk factors can be modified, as well as a number of intermediate biological factors including high blood pressure, being overweight or obese, elevated blood lipids, and pre-diabetes. Societal, economic, and physical conditions influence and shape behavior and indirectly affect other biological factors. The recognition of these common risk factors and conditions is the conceptual basis for an integrated approach to chronic disease.
SOME EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DISEASES
Chronic illnesses have disease-specific symptoms but may also bring invisible symptoms like pain, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pain and fatigue may become a frequent part of your day. Along with your illness, you probably have certain things you have to do to take care of yourself, like take medicine or do exercises. Keeping up with your health management tasks might also cause stress. Physical changes from a disease may affect your appearance. These changes can turn a positive self-image into a poor one. When you don't feel good about yourself, you may withdraw from friends and social activities. Mood disorders such as depression and anxiety are common complaints of people with chronic conditions, but they’re extremely treatable. Chronic illness can also influence your ability to work. You might have to change the way you work to cope with morning stiffness, decreased range of motion, and other physical limitations. If you aren’t able to work, you might have financial difficulties. If you’re a homemaker, your work may take much longer to do. You might need to ask for help from your spouse, a relative, or a home healthcare provider. As your life changes, you may feel a loss of control, anxiety, and uncertainty about the future. In some families, there could be a role reversal where people who were able to stay at home must return to work. Stress can build and can shape your feelings about life. Long periods of stress can lead to frustration, anger, hopelessness, and, at times, depression. This can happen not only to you but also to your family members. They’re also influenced by the chronic health problems of a loved one.
PREVENTION
A growing body of evidence supports that prevention is effective in reducing the effect of chronic conditions; in particular, early detection results in less severe outcomes. Clinical preventive services include screening for the existence of the disease or predisposition to its development, counseling, and immunizations against infectious agents. Despite their effectiveness, the utilization of preventive services is typically lower than for regular medical services. In contrast to their apparent cost in time and money, the benefits of preventive services are not directly perceived by patients because their effects are in the long term or might be greater for society as a whole than at the individual level. Therefore, public health programs are important in educating the public and promoting healthy lifestyles and awareness about chronic diseases. While those programs can benefit from funding at different levels (state, federal, private) their implementation is mostly in charge of local agencies and community-based organizations. Studies have shown that public health programs are effective in reducing mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, but the results are somewhat heterogeneous depending on the type of condition and the type of programs involved. For example, results from different approaches in cancer prevention and screening depended highly on the type of cancer. It is uncertain whether school-based policies on targeting risk factors on chronic diseases such as healthy eating policies, physical activity policies, and tobacco policies can improve student health behaviors or knowledge of staff and students. Encouraging those with chronic conditions to continue with their outpatient (ambulatory) medical care and attend scheduled medical appointments may help improve outcomes and reduce medical costs due to missed appointments. Finding patient-centered alternatives to doctors or consultants scheduling medical appointments has been suggested as a means of improving the number of people with chronic conditions that miss medical appointments, however, there is no strong evidence that these approaches make a difference.
MANAGEMENT
Chronic Disease Management (CDM) is ongoing care and support to assist individuals impacted by a chronic health condition with the medical care, knowledge, skills, and resources they need to better manage on a day to day basis. This may include regular visits and support from your family physician, another primary care provider, community-based programs, or referrals to specialist programs and services. An integrated care approach to managing illness which includes screenings, check-ups, monitoring and coordinating treatment, and patient education. The overarching goal of chronic care management is to help patients achieve a better quality of life through continuous care and management of their conditions. In a chronic care management program, a patient might have reduced pain and stress, increased mobility and physical fitness, and better sleep and relaxation.
To improve health status
Eating a healthy diet.
Get as much physical activity as you can.
Avoid negative coping mechanisms like alcohol and substance abuse.
Exploring stress-relief activities like meditation.
Letting of obligations that you don’t really need to do or want to do.
Asking for help when you need it.
Staying in touch with family and friends.
You can find help for stress-related chronic illnesses. Counseling options include support groups, individual counseling, and/or family and couples counseling.